i. The Indus system of rivers comprises three Eastern Rivers (Ravi, Beas and
Sutlej and their tributaries) and three Western Rivers (Indus, Jhelum and
Chenab and their tributaries).
ii. The Indus Waters Treaty 1960 was signed on 19.09.1960 between India and
Pakistan. It is however effective from 01.04.1960.
iii. Under the Treaty, the waters of Eastern Rivers are allocated to India. India is
under obligation to let flow the waters of the Western Rivers except for the
(a) Domestic Use,
(b) Non-consumptive use,
(c) Agricultural use as specified,
(d) Generation of hydro-electric power as specified
iv. India has been permitted to construct storage of water on Western Rivers
upto 3.6 MAF for various purposes. No storage has been developed so far.
v. India has been permitted Agricultural Use of 7,01,000 acres over and above
the Irrigated Cropped Area (ICA) as on 1.4.60. Out of this additional ICA of
7,01,000 acres, only 2,70,000 can be developed (i.e. a total ICA of 9,12,477
acres including that on 1.4.1960) till storages are constructed and 0.5 MAF of
water is released there from every year. ICA during 2011-12 was 7,84,955
vi. Under the Treaty, India and Pakistan have each created a permanent post of
Commissioner for Indus Waters. They together constitute the Permanent
Indus Commission (PIC), which is entrusted with the implementation of the
Treaty. The PIC is required to hold meetings and tours and submit report on
its work to the two Governments every year. It has held 117 tours and 110
meetings so far.
vii. Both sides are required to exchange information related to river flows
observed by them, not later than three months of their observation and to
exchange specified information on Agricultural Use every year.
viii. India is under obligation to supply information of its storage and hydroelectric
projects as specified.
viii. India communicates as a gesture of goodwill, flood data to Pakistan from 1st
July to 10th October every year, to enable them to undertake advance flood
relief measures. The arrangement is reviewed every year.
ix. The Commissioners may discuss the questions arising under the Treaty under
Article IX of the Treaty related to Settlement of Differences and Disputes and
in the case of non-resolution, take further action under this Article for
resolution through a Neutral Expert, negotiators or Court of Arbitration. A
Neutral Expert appointed by World Bank on Pakistan’s request delivered
Expert Determination on Baglihar Hydroelectric project in 2007. On request of
Pakistan, to resolve the issues of Kishenganga HE project, a seven member Court
of Arbitration was set up in 2010. The Court has given its final award on
20 December 2013.